Solemn Declaration I
Solemn Declaration II
Solemn Declaration III
For the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, OPEC, meetings have proved to be a very effective method of its decision-making process, providing an avenue for its leaders to regularly meet and review the broader role of the Organization in world energy matters.
One of such meetings is the OPEC Summit, which brings to- gether, Heads of State and Government of Member Countries to deliberate on issues of global importance and take decisions that set the Organization’s policy guidelines.
Since it was founded on 14 September 1960, the Summit has taken place three times – Algiers, Algeria, 1975; Caracas, Venezuela, 2000 and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2007. For each of these Summits, the main purpose was to step back from the day-to-day activities of the international oil market and examine issues at the national leadership level, pertaining to the funda- mental principles, objectives and procedures of the Organization to see whether they aligned to the requirements of the time.
The Summits also examined contemporary issues confronting the world, particularly the state of the world’s poorer countries, in a world of unequal relations, drawing attention and commit- ting resources to assisting them in their developmental efforts.
The First Summit which was held when the Organization and its Member Countries were still struggling to establish them- selves on the world’s energy stage ‘reaffirmed the natural sol- idarity which unites OPEC Countries with other developing countries in their struggle to overcome under-development, and called for measures to strengthen co-operation with these countries.’
The outstanding legacy of the Summit is the OPEC Fund for International Development, OFID. Established in 1976 as the OPEC Special Fund, OFID is a direct outcome of the issues dis- cussed in Algiers by the OPEC heads of state as set out in its Declaratory Statement.
When the Second Summit took place, OPEC had become a more mature organization widely recognized as a force for mod- eration and stability in petroleum matters. It was also at a time when new issues like the environment were attracting global at- tention against the background of the United Nations-sponsored climate change negotiations and the possible impact this might have on future energy taxes and oil demand.
The third Summit built on the previous summits, reaffirming the inalienable and permanent sovereign rights of OPEC Member Countries over their natural resources.
Hinged on the triple issues of providing petroleum, promoting prosperity and protecting the environment, Member Countries used the opportunity to re-commit themselves to ensuring ad- equate, timely, efficient, economic and reliable petroleum sup- plies to world markets. It also drew attention to the importance of cleaner and more efficient petroleum technologies for the pro- tection of the local, regional and global environment, as well as
the importance of expediting the development of technologies that address climate change concerns.
This booklet is being published as a quick and easy reference on the Declarations of the Summits of OPEC Heads of State and Governments.
Vienna, Austria March 2009
Solemn Declaration I
Conference of Sovereigns and Heads of State of OPEC Member Countries
Algiers, Algeria, 4–6 March 1975
The Sovereigns and Heads of State of the Member Countries of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries met in Algiers on 4–6 March 1975, at the invitation of the President of the Revolutionary Council and of the Council of Ministers of the Democratic People’s Republic of Algeria.
1. They reviewed the present world economic crisis, exchanged views on the causes of the crisis which has persisted for several years, and consid- ered the measures they would take to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of their peoples, in the context of international solidarity and co- operation.
They stress that world peace and progress depend on the mutual re- spect for the sovereignty and equality of all member nations of the international community, in accordance with the UN Charter. They fur- ther emphasise that the basic statements of this Declaration fall within the context of the decisions taken at the VI Special Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations on problems of raw materials and development.
The Sovereigns and Heads of State reaffirm the solidarity which unites their countries in safeguarding the legitimate rights and the interests of their peoples, reasserting the sovereign and inalienable right of their coun- tries to the ownership, exploitation and pricing of their natural resources and rejecting any idea or attempt that challenges those fundamental rights and, thereby, the sovereignty of their countries.
Solemn Declaration I 1
They also reaffirm that OPEC Member Countries, through the collective, steadfast and cohesive defence of the legitimate rights of their peoples, have served the larger and ultimate interest and progress of the world community and, in doing so, have acted in the direction hoped for by all developing countries, producers of raw materials, in defence of the legiti- mate rights of their peoples.
They conclude that the interdependence of nations, manifested in the world economic situation, requires a new emphasis on international co- operation and declare themselves prepared to contribute with their efforts to the objectives of world economic development and stability, as stated in the Declaration and Programme of Action for the establishment of a new international economic order adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations during its VI Special Session.
2. The Sovereigns and Heads of State note that the cause of the present world economic crisis stems largely from the profound inequalities in the economic and social progress among peoples; such inequalities, which characterise the under-development of the developing countries, have been mainly generated and activated by foreign exploitation and have become more acute over the years due to the absence of adequate in- ternational co-operation for development. This situation has fostered the drainage of natural resources of the developing countries impeding an ef- fective transfer of capital resources and technology, and thus resulting in a basic disequilibrium in economic relations.
They note that the disequilibrium which besets the present international economic situation has been aggravated by widespread inflation, a gen- eral slowdown of economic growth and instability of the world monetary system in the absence of monetary discipline and restraint.
They reaffirm that the decisive causes of such anomalies lie in the long- standing and persistent ills which have been allowed to accumulate over the years, such as the general tendency of the developed countries to consume excessively and to waste scarce resources, as well as inappro- priate and short-sighted economic policies in the industrialised world.
They, therefore, reject any allegation attributing to the price of petroleum the responsibility for the present instability of the world economy. Indeed, the oil which has contributed so significantly to the progress and pros- perity of the industrialised nations for the past quarter of a century, not
2 Solemn Declaration I
only is the cheapest source of energy available, but the cost of imported oil constitutes an almost negligible part of the Gross National Product of the developed countries. The recent adjustment in the price of oil did not contribute but insignificantly to the high rates of inflation which have been generated within the economies of the developed countries, basically by other causes. This inflation exported continuously to the developing coun- tries has disrupted their development efforts.
- Moreover, the Sovereigns and Heads of State condemn the threats, propa- ganda campaigns and other measures which have gone so far as to attribute to OPEC Member Countries the intention of undermining the economies of the developed countries; such campaigns and measures that may lead to confrontation have obstructed a clear understanding of the problems in- volved and have tended to create an atmosphere of tension that is not con- ducive to international consultation and co-operation. They also denounce any grouping of consumer nations with the aim of confrontation, and con- demn any plan or strategy designed for aggression, economic or military, by such grouping or otherwise against any OPEC Member Country.
In view of such threats, the Sovereigns and Heads of State reaffirm the solidarity that unites their countries in the defence of the legitimate rights of their peoples and hereby declare their readiness, within the framework of that solidarity, to take immediate and effective measures in order to counteract such threats with a united response whenever the need arises, notably in the case of aggression.
- While anxious to satisfy the legitimate aspirations of their peoples for de- velopment and progress, the Sovereigns and Heads of State are also keen- ly aware of the close link which exists between the achievement of their national development and the prosperity of the world economy. Increased interdependence between nations makes them even more mindful of the difficulties experienced by other peoples which may affect world stability. In view of this, they reaffirm their support for dialogue, co-operation and concerted action for the solution of the major problems facing the world economy.
In this spirit, the OPEC Member Countries, with increased financial re- sources in a relatively short period of time, have contributed through mul- tilateral and bilateral channels, to the development efforts and balance of payments adjustments of other developing countries, as well as industrial- ised nations. As a proportion of Gross National Product, during 1974, their
Solemn Declaration I 3
financial support to other developing countries was several times greater than the average annual aid given by industrialised nations to developing countries during the last development decade. In addition, OPEC Member Countries have extended financial facilities to developed countries to help them meet their balance of payments deficits. Furthermore, the accelera- tion of their economic development and the trade promotion measures adopted by OPEC Member Countries have contributed to the expansion of international trade as well as balance of payments adjustments of de- veloped countries.
- The Sovereigns and Heads of State agree in principle to holding an in- ternational conference bringing together the developed and developing countries.
They consider that the objective of such a conference should be to make a significant advance in action designed to alleviate the major difficul- ties existing in the world economy, and that consequently the conference should pay equal attention to the problems facing both the developed and developing countries.
Therefore, the agenda of the aforementioned conference can in no case be confined to an examination of the question of energy; it evidently includes the questions of raw materials of the developing countries, the reform of the international monetary system and international co- operation in favour of development in order to achieve world stability.
Furthermore, this conference may, for reasons of efficiency, be held in a limited framework provided that all the nations concerned by the prob- lems dealt with, are adequately and genuinely represented.
- The Sovereigns and Heads of State stress that the exploitation of the depletable oil resources in their countries must be based, first and fore- most, upon the best interests of their peoples and that oil, which is the major source of their income, constitutes a vital element in their development.
While recognising the vital role of oil supplies to the world economy, they believe that the conservation of petroleum resources is a fundamental re- quirement for the well being of future generations and, therefore, urge the adoption of policies aimed at optimising the use of this essential, depleta- ble and non-renewable resource.
4 Solemn Declaration I
- The Sovereigns and Heads of State point out that an artificially low price for petroleum in the past has prompted over-exploitation of this limited and depletable resource, and that continuation of such policy would have proved to be disastrous from the point of view of conservation and world economy.
They consider that the interest of the OPEC Member Countries, as well as the rest of the world, would require that the oil price, being the fundamen- tal element in the national income of the Member Countries, should be determined taking into account the following:
- – the imperatives of the conservation of petroleum, including its deple- tion and increasing scarcity in the future;
- – the value of oil in terms of its non-energy uses; and
- – the conditions of availability, utilization and cost of alternative sources of energy.
Moreover, the price of petroleum must be maintained by linking it to cer- tain objective criteria, including the price of manufactured goods, the rate of inflation, the terms of transfer of goods and technology for the develop- ment of OPEC Member Countries.
- The Sovereigns and Heads of State declare that their countries are will- ing to continue to make positive contributions towards the solution of the major problems affecting the world economy, and to promote genuine co- operation which is the key to the establishment of a new international eco- nomic order.
In order to set in motion such international co-operation, they propose the adoption of a series of measures directed to other developing countries as well as the industrialised nations.
They, therefore, wish to stress that the series of measures proposed herein constitute an overall programme, the components of which must all be imple- mented if the desired objectives of equity and efficiency are to be attained.
- The Sovereigns and Heads of State reaffirm the natural solidarity which unites their countries with the other developing countries in their struggle to overcome under-development, and express their deep appreciation
Solemn Declaration I 5
for the strong support given to OPEC Member Countries by all the devel- oping nations as announced in the Conference of Developing Countries on Raw Materials, held in Dakar between 3 and 8 February 1975.
They recognise that the countries most affected by the world economic crisis are the developing countries and therefore reaffirm their decision to implement measures that will strengthen their co-operation with those countries. They are prepared to contribute within their respective possibili- ties to the realization of the UN Special International Programme and to extend additional special credits, loans and grants for the development of developing countries.
In this context, they have agreed to co-ordinate their programmes for fi- nancial co-operation in order to better assist the most affected developing countries especially in overcoming their balance of payments difficulties. They have also decided to co-ordinate such financial measures with long- term loans that will contribute to the development of those economies.
In the same context, and in order to contribute to a better utilization of the agricultural potential of the developing countries, the Sovereigns and Heads of State have decided to promote the production of fertilisers, with the aim of supplying such production under favourable terms and condi- tions, to the countries most affected by the economic crisis.
They reaffirm their willingness to co-operate with the other developing countries which are exporters of raw materials and other basic commodi- ties in their efforts to obtain an equitable and remunerative price level for their exports.
10. Tohelpsmoothoutdifficultiesaffectingtheeconomiesofdevelopedcoun- tries, the Sovereigns and Heads of State declare that the OPEC Member Countries will continue to make special efforts in respect of the needs of these countries.
As regards the supply of petroleum, they reaffirm their countries’ readiness to ensure supplies that will meet the essential requirements of the econo- mies of the developed countries, provided that the consuming countries do not use artificial barriers to distort the normal operation of the laws of demand and supply.
To this end, the OPEC Member Countries shall establish close
6 Solemn Declaration I
co-operation and co-ordination among themselves in order to maintain balance between oil production and the needs of the world market.
With respect to the petroleum prices, they point out that in spite of the apparent magnitude of the readjustment, the high rate of inflation and cur- rency depreciation have wiped out a major portion of the real value of price re-adjustment, and that the current price is markedly lower than that which would result from the development of alternative sources of energy.
Nevertheless, they are prepared to negotiate the conditions for the stabi- lisation of oil prices which will enable the consuming countries to make necessary adjustments to their economies.
The Sovereigns and Heads of State, within the spirit of dialogue and co- operation, affirm that the OPEC Member Countries are prepared to ne- gotiate with the most affected developed countries, bilaterally or through international organizations, the provision of financial facilities that allow the growth of the economies of those countries while ensuring both the value and security of the assets of OPEC Member Countries.
11. Recalling that a genuine international co-operation must benefit both the developing and developed countries, the Sovereigns and Heads of State declare that parallel with, and as a counterpart to, the efforts, guarantees and commitments which the OPEC Member Countries are prepared to make, the developed countries must contribute to the progress and development of the developing countries through con- crete action, and in particular to achieve economic and monetary sta- bility, giving due regard to the interests of the developing countries.
In this context, they emphasise the necessity for the full implementa- tion of the Programme of Action adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its VI Special Session, and accordingly they emphasise the following requirements:
- – Developed countries must support measures taken by developing countries which are directed towards the stabilisation of the prices of their exports of raw materials and other basic commodities at equita- ble and remunerative levels.
- – Fulfilment by the developed countries of their international commitments for the second UN Development Decade as a minimum contribution to
Solemn Declaration I 7
be increased particularly by the most able of the developed countries for the benefit of the most affected developing countries.
- – Formulation and implementation of an effective food programme un- der which the developed countries, particularly the world major pro- ducers and exporters of foodstuffs and products, extend grants and assistance to the most affected developing countries with respect to their food and agricultural requirements.
- – Acceleration of the development processes of the developing coun- tries, particularly through the adequate and timely transfer of modern technology and the removal of the obstacles that slow the utilization and integration of such technology in the economies of the developing countries. Considering that in many cases obstacles to development derive from insufficient and inappropriate transfers of technology, the Sovereigns and Heads of State attach the greatest importance to the transfer of technology which, in their opinion, constitutes a ma- jor test of adherence of the developed countries to the principle of international co-operation in favour of development. The transfer of technology should not be based on a division of labour in which the developing countries would produce goods of lesser technological content. An efficient transfer of technology must enable the develop- ing countries to overcome the considerable technological lag in their economies through the manufacture in their territories of products of a high technological content, particularly in relation to the develop- ment and transformation of their natural resources. With regard to the depletable natural resources, as OPEC’s petroleum resources are, it is essential that the transfer of technology must be commensurate in speed and volume with the rate of their depletion, which is being accelerated for the benefit and growth of the economies of the devel- oped countries.
- – A major portion of the planned or new petrochemical complexes, oil refineries and fertiliser plants be built in the territories of OPEC Member Countries with the co-operation of industrialised nations for export purposes to the developed countries with guaranteed access for such products to the markets of these countries.
- – Adequate protection against the depreciation of the value of the ex- ternal reserves of OPEC Member Countries, as well as assurance of the security of their investments in the developed countries.
8 Solemn Declaration I
Moreover, they deem it necessary that the developed countries open their markets to hydrocarbons and other primary commodities as well as manufactured goods produced by the developing countries, and con- sider that discriminatory practices against the developing countries and among them, the OPEC Member Countries, are contrary to the spirit of co- operation and partnership.
12. The Sovereigns and Heads of State note the present disorder in the inter- national monetary system and the absence of rules and instruments es- sential to safeguard the terms of trade and the value of financial assets of developing countries.
They emphasise, particularly, the urgent need to take the necessary steps to ensure the protection of the developing countries’ legitimate interests.
They recognise that the pooling of the financial resources of both the OPEC Member Countries and the developed countries, as well as the technological ability of the latter, for the furtherance of the economy of the developing countries, would substantially help in solving the international economic crisis.
They stress that fundamental and urgent measures should be taken to reform the international monetary system in such directions as to pro- vide adequate and stable instruments for the expansion of trade, the de- velopment of productive resources and balanced growth of the world economy.
They note that the initiatives so far taken to reform the international mon- etary system have failed, since those initiatives have not been directed towards the removal of the inherent inequity in the structure of the system. Decisions likely to affect the value of the reserve currencies, the Special Drawing Rights, and the price and role of gold in the international mon- etary system, should no longer be allowed to be made on a unilateral ba- sis or negotiated by developed countries alone; the developed countries should subscribe to a genuine reform of the international monetary and fi- nancial institution, to ensure its equitable representation and to guarantee the interests of all developing countries.
The reform of the monetary and financial system should allow a substantial increase in the share of developing countries in decision-making, manage- ment and participation, in the spirit of partnership for international devel- opment and on the basis of equality.
Solemn Declaration I 9
With this in mind, the Sovereigns and Heads of State have decided to promote amongst their countries a mechanism for consultation and co-ordination for full co-operation in the framework of their solidarity, and with a view to achieving the goal of a genuine reform of the inter- national monetary and financial system.
- TheSovereignsandHeadsofStateattachgreatimportancetothestrength- ening of OPEC and, in particular, to the co-ordination of the activities of their National Oil Companies within the framework of the Organization and to the role which it should play in the international economy. They consider that certain tasks of prime importance remain to be accomplished which call for concerted planning among their countries and for the co-ordination of their policies in the fields of production of oil, its conservation, pricing and mar- keting, financial matters of common interest and concerted planning and economic co-operation among Member Countries in favour of international development and stability.
- TheSovereignsandHeadsofStatearedeeplyconcernedaboutthepresent international economic crisis, which constitutes a dangerous threat to sta- bility and peace. At the same time, they recognise that the crisis has brought about an awareness of the existence of problems whose solution will con- tribute to the security and well-being of humanity as a whole.
Equally aware of the hopes and aspirations of the peoples the world over for the solution of the major problems affecting their lives, the Sovereigns and Heads of State solemnly agree to commit their countries to measures aimed at opening a new era of co-operation in international relations.
It behoves the developed countries, which hold most of the instruments of progress, well-being and peace, just as they hold most of the instruments of destruction, to respond to the initiatives of the developing countries with initiatives of the same kind, by choosing to grasp the crisis situation as an historic opportunity in opening a new chapter in relations between peoples.
The anxiety generated by the uncertainty marking relations between those who hold power, coupled with the climate of uneasiness created by the confusion reigning in the world economy, would then give way to the con- fidence and peace resulting in an atmosphere of genuine international co-operation in which the developing countries would derive the greatest benefit and to which they would contribute their immense potentialities.
10 Solemn Declaration I
At the time when, thanks to man’s genius, scientific and technological progress has endowed peoples with substantial means of surmounting natural adversity and of bringing about the most remarkable changes for the better, the future of mankind ultimately depends solely on man’s ca- pacity to mobilise their imagination and willpower in the service and inter- est of all.
The Sovereigns and Heads of State of the OPEC Member Countries pro- claim their profound faith in the capability of all peoples to bring about a new economic order founded on justice and fraternity which will enable the world of tomorrow to enjoy progress equally shared by all in co-oper- ation, stability and peace. They accordingly make a fervent appeal to the Governments of the other countries of the world and solemnly pledge the full support of their peoples in the pursuance of this aim.
Solemn Declaration I 11
12 Solemn Declaration I
Solemn Declaration II
The Second Summit of Heads of State
and Government of OPEC Member Countries
Caracas, Venezuela, 27–28 September 2000
We, the Heads of State and Government of Member Countries of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), having decided to hold our second Summit in furtherance of our co-operation and to give conti- nuity to the spirit of solidarity and unity of our first Summit, which was held in Algiers in 1975, and cognisant of the sovereignty of Member Countries over their natural resources, and their obligation to advance the development of their peoples, have accepted the invitation extended by HE the President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Hugo Chávez Frías, to meet in Caracas from 27 to 28 September 2000.
Noting that oil has become the main source of energy during the last century, thus contributing significantly to world economic, social, technological and scientific development;
- the strategic importance of oil as an energy source for mankind;
- the contribution of Member Countries to world economic prosperity through the provision of oil;
- the vital role of oil resources in our national economies; and
Taking into consideration the rapid pace of change in economic, political, technological, and environmental developments, and the challenges and op- portunities created by globalisation and liberalisation;
- To reaffirm the principles and objectives of our Organization as stated in its Statute 40 years ago. In doing so, to aim at the preservation and the enhance- ment of the role oil would play in meeting future world energy demand.
- To protect the interests of OPEC Member Countries, both individually and collectively, through suitable strategies and policies designed to optimise the overall economic benefits that can be derived from the utilisation of their vast natural resources.
- To express our firm commitment, as key participants in the global oil mar- ket, to continue providing adequate, timely and secure supplies of oil to consumers at fair and stable prices; and to emphasise the strong link be- tween the security of supply and the security and transparency of world oil demand.
- To develop oil pricing policies that are remunerative, stable and competi- tive with other energy sources, in conjunction with a production policy that ensures a fair share for OPEC in the world oil supply. Such policies are to contribute to market stability and sustainable growth of the world economy.
- To continuously seek new ways and means for timely and effective co-ordination among OPEC Member Countries, so as to achieve their medium and long-term objectives.
- To enhance existing, and build new, capabilities and skills within OPEC in order to ensure that the Organization is able to adapt to change, includ- ing globalisation and technological advances, and to maintain an effective participation in international fora.
- To promote mutually beneficial co-operation among OPEC National Oil Companies, and between them and the international petroleum industry.
- To strengthen co-operation on a regular basis between OPEC and other oil exporting countries to achieve market stability.
14 Solemn Declaration II
- To actively seek new and effective channels of dialogue between oil pro- ducers and consumers, for the purpose of market stability, transparency and sustainable growth of the world economy. In this regard, it is antici- pated that the Seventh International Energy Forum, to be held in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 17 to 19 November 2000, will be an excellent opportunity for such dialogue, to which consuming countries are invited to participate at the highest level.
- To assert OPEC’s association with the universal concern for the well-being of the global environment, and its readiness to continue to participate ef- fectively in the global environmental debate and negotiations, including the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, to ensure a balanced and comprehensive outcome, taking into account the principle of common but differentiated responsibility, and to urge coun- tries listed in Annex I of the UNFCCC to implement policies and measures to minimise the adverse social and economic impacts of their response measures on the countries whose economies are highly dependent on the production and export of fossil fuels.
- To call for the use of both oil and gas in circumstances where they can be substituted for other fuels which are recognised as being damaging to the global environment.
- To emphasise that economic and social development and the eradication of poverty should be the overriding global priority. To this end, OPEC will continue its historic record of taking the issues of the Developing Countries into full consideration, inter alia, through their individual aid programmes as well as through the OPEC Fund for International Development and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; and urges the industrial- ised countries to recognise that the biggest environmental tragedy facing the globe is human poverty.
- To note, with concern, that the debt levels of many Developing Countries have become unsustainable. We, therefore, call for substantive effort for debt reduction initiatives by the international donor community, including the urgent fulfilment of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative.
- To call on the consuming countries to adopt fair and equitable treatment of oil in world energy markets by ensuring that their environmental, fiscal, energy and trade policies do not discriminate against oil, thereby helping to achieve global sustainable development.
Solemn Declaration II 15
- To express the concern that taxation on petroleum products forms the largest component of the final price to the consumers in the major con- suming countries, and call upon them to reconsider their policies with the aim of alleviating this tax burden for the benefit of the consumers, just and equitable terms of trade between developing and developed countries, and for the sustainable growth of the world economy.
- To boost efforts and programmes to diversify our economies, placing greater emphasis on technological innovation, to which end external and internal barriers to diversification need to be anticipated, identified and removed. Industrialised countries and relevant international organizations are called upon to collaborate towards the achievement of this goal, cog- nisant of the mutual benefits which will be realised.
- To acknowledge the vital role of in-depth scientific and technical research, to recommend establishing links among the research centres in the Member Countries to aid the OPEC decision-making process, and to con- sider ways and means in which the research activities of our Organization could be strengthened, including exploring the possibility of establishing a research institute or university.
- To instruct our Finance Ministers to study ways and means of enhancing financial co-operation between OPEC Member Countries.
- To acknowledge the diversity and cultural wealth of our peoples, heirs to a legacy of thousands of years, and to promote enhanced cultural in- teraction among OPEC Member Countries, in order to strengthen their historical links. This would help broaden dialogue on matters of common interest.
- To institutionalise the OPEC Summit of Heads of State and Government, to take place at regular intervals to be decided after consultation among Member Countries, with the aim of enhancing the ability of our Organization to extend the numerous successes which it has achieved in the first 40 years of its rich and remarkable history into the 21st century.
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Solemn Declaration III
Conference of Sovereigns and Heads of State of OPEC Member Countries
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,17–18 November 2007
We, the Heads of State and Government of Member Countries of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), continuing in the spirit of our First and Second Summits, held in Algiers and Caracas in 1975 and 2000, respectively, have accepted the invitation extended by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud, to meet for our Third Summit in Riyadh, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from 17–18 November 2007.
Reaffirming the inalienable and permanent sovereign rights of our Countries over their natural resources;
Cognizant of our Countries’ commitments to conserve, efficiently manage and prolong the exploitation of their exhaustible petroleum resources, in or- der to promote the sustainable development and the welfare of our future generations;
Recognizing our obligation to develop our Countries and raise the living stand- ards of our peoples;
And emphasizing the role of our Organization and its contribution to global energy market stability and economic prosperity;
Have agreed to the following principles to guide our Organization and Member Countries’ economic, energy and environmental endeavours, with- in the following three themes:
Stability of global energy markets Energy for sustainable development Energy and environment
Stability of global energy markets
We recognize the importance of reliable, affordable and competitive energy supplies in ensuring global prosperity and the role of petroleum in world energy consumption. We also recognize the leading role of our Organization in meet- ing growing global energy needs, including those of developing economies, and our Organization’s mission of securing the efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consumers, with a steady and reasonable income to the petroleum resource-owning producers and a fair return on capital to those investing in the petroleum industry.
Globalisation has expanded international trade and accelerated economic growth. It has also improved communications, interconnected financial mar- kets, advanced technology and increased mobility. As a result, the world’s energy trade has expanded and is projected to continue to be driven by global economic and energy demand growth. While globalisation provides opportu- nities, it poses many challenges, such as income inequality, recurring market volatility and underlying uncertainties.
The central role that petroleum plays in the economies of our Countries, as well as the world, makes petroleum market stability essential, not only for resource con- servation, but also to our economic and social development. Moreover, the role of energy, especially petroleum, in the economies of the consuming countries makes energy security essential for their sustained economic growth. While we endeav- our to diversify our economies and improve the living standards of our peoples, we recognize that, with globalisation, the economies of the world, as well as markets, including energy markets, are integrated and interdependent.
Our Organization is well-positioned to continue to meet a substantial share of the global petroleum need, and, while acknowledging the chal- lenges of globalisation and changing world energy market dynamics, we resolve to:
1. Reaffirm our commitment to the principles and objectives, as stated in the Organization’s Statute, Algiers and Caracas Solemn Declarations of our Summits in 1975 and 2000, as well as the Long-Term Strategy of our Organization.
18 Solemn Declaration III
- Continue providing adequate, timely, efficient, economic and reliable pe- troleum supplies to world markets.
- Work with all parties to achieve balanced energy markets and stable and competitive petroleum prices.
- Emphasize the importance of global peace in enhancing energy invest- ment and market stability and predictability.
- Undertake the necessary investments to increase upstream and down- stream capacities in our Member Countries, and, at the same time, urge consuming nations to provide the environment conducive to petroleum investments in their countries.
- Underscore the interrelationships between global security of petroleum supply and the security and predictability of demand.
- Urge all parties to find ways and means to enhance the efficiency of financial petroleum markets with the aim of reducing short-term price volatility that is harmful to producers and consumers.
- Promote efficiency and sustainability of the production and consumption of pe- troleum resources, while recognizing the roles of technology and innovation.
- Continue the process of co-ordination and consultation with other petro- leum-exporting countries, in the interests of all petroleum producers.
- Strengthen and broaden the dialogue between energy producers and con- sumers through the International Energy Forum and other international and regional fora, for the benefit of all, and note successful dialogues between OPEC, the European Union, the People’s Republic of China, the Russian Federation, the International Energy Agency and others.
- Reiterate that measures or legislation undermining the spirit of producer-consumer co-operation would jeopardize market stability and energy security.
- Encourage co-operation and exchanges in the fields of technology and human resource development, among petroleum industries in OPEC Member Countries and with other stakeholders, to promote efficiency, in- novation, governance and international best practices.
Solemn Declaration III 19
- Urge consuming governments to adopt transparent, non-discriminatory and predictable trade, fiscal, environmental and energy policies and pro- mote free access to markets and financial resources.
- Work with other governments, international organizations and the in- ternational business community to facilitate investment in, and the transfer of technology to, our Member Countries, in order to diver- sify our economies and achieve social progress and sustainable development.
Energy for sustainable development
We recognize that energy is essential for poverty eradication, sustainable development and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. The world community has agreed, through different international initiatives, that access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services is crucial, particularly for developing countries. We associate our Countries with all global efforts aimed at bridging the develop- ment gap, making energy accessible to the world’s poor, while protecting the environment.
Addressing the economic, social and environmental pillars of sustainable de- velopment requires a comprehensive approach to international trade, finance, energy and technology issues. Reaffirming the principle of sovereignty, it is im- portant to continue working towards an early conclusion of the development- oriented Doha Round of trade negotiations, as well as mobilising development assistance and foreign direct investment to developing countries. It is equally important, in this regard, to ensure that investment and trade policies are fair and structured to promote and facilitate technology transfer to developing countries on affordable and cost-effective terms, especially of environmental- ly-sound technologies.
The Member Countries of our Organization, while joining the international community in the efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, take the interests of fellow developing countries into full account in our petroleum production and investment decisions, as well as our development assist- ance programmes and initiatives. It was during our First Summit in Algiers that the OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID) was established to provide development assistance to developing countries. Our Member Countries, acknowledging the strong interrelationships between energy and
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development and the potential for their enhancement to achieve sustainable development, resolve to:
- Emphasize that eradicating poerty should be the first and overriding global priority guiding local, regional and international efforts.
- Continue working with the international community towards the advance- ment of the interdependent and mutually supportive pillars of sustainable development, namely economic development, social progress and envi- ronmental protection.
- Highlight the importance for the global community to achieve its de- velopment goals, including those contained in Agenda 21, the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, the Monterrey Consensus and the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD) initiative.
- Urge developed countries to facilitate access to modern technologies by developing countries that are reliable, affordable, economically viable, so- cially acceptable and environmentally sound.
- Reaffirm OPEC’s continued commitment to development assistance through OFID and its Member Countries’ bilateral, regional and multilat- eral development assistance channels.
- Continue to align the programmes of our aid institutions, including those of OFID, with the objective of achieving sustainable development and the eradication of energy poverty in the developing countries, and study ways and means of enhancing this endeavour, in association with the energy industry and other financial institutions.
- Instruct our Petroleum/Energy and Finance Ministers to study ways and means of enhancing financial co-operation among OPEC Member Countries, including proposals by some of the Heads of State and Government in their statements to the Summit.
Energy and environment
The process of production and consumption of energy resources poses differ- ent local, regional and global environmental challenges. Human ingenuity and technological development have long played pivotal roles in addressing such
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challenges and providing the world with clean, affordable and competitive pe- troleum resources for global prosperity.
Producers of petroleum are called upon to continue their central role in provid- ing the world with its present and future energy needs, while addressing, along with the international community, global environmental concerns associated with their use.
We share the international community’s concern that climate change is a long-term challenge, and recognize the interrelationships between address- ing such concerns on the one hand, and ensuring secure and stable pe- troleum supplies to support global economic growth and development, on the other. While addressing global environmental concerns, such as climate change, it is important to emphasize the roles of governments, as well as those of innovation, markets and technological development, in any local and global undertaking.
In the run-up to the 13th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Third Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol, in our Member Country, Indonesia — and beyond — we continue to collaborate with the international community in addressing the issues and challenges in a comprehensive, equitable and ef- fective manner. Our Member Countries, acknowledging the interrelationships between energy production and consumption, environmental protection and preservation and economic growth and social development, resolve to:
- Continue our Member Countries’ response to global environmental chal- lenges and support international efforts to address these issues in the most costeffective manner.
- Promote collaboration in research and development in the petroleum field among OPEC science and technology centres, as well as collaboration with other international centres and the industry, with the objective of increasing the petroleum resource base, producing it more efficiently and continue in- troducing cleaner fuels.
- Acknowledge that forests play a crucial role in maintaining ecological bal- ance, as sinks, sources and reservoirs of greenhouse gases. In this regard, we are committed to the promotion of the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forest. To this end, global co-op- eration is needed to intensify collective international efforts in this field.
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- Reaffirm the core principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in addressing climate change policies and measures, including the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol.
- Ensure that all policies and measures developed to address climate change concerns are both balanced and comprehensive, taking into account their impact on developing countries, including countries heavily dependent on the production and export of fossil fuels.
- Emphasize the importance of a comprehensive approach to climate change that addresses all contributing greenhouse gases, their sources, sectors and sinks, and benefits from the relevant Kyoto Protocol mechanism.
- Stress the importance of cleaner and more efficient petroleum technolo- gies for the protection of the local, regional and global environment, and the importance of expediting the development of technologies that ad- dress climate change, such as carbon capture and storage.
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Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
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